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 welcome you to Danube Delta

 

tells you about the Danube Delta:

  

Geography

 

     Delta is limited to the southwest of Dobrogea Plateau, north forms the border with Ukraine and flows east into the Black Sea. Danube Delta is crossed the parallel of 45 ° N and longitude 29 ° longitude E. Delta deal with Razim - Sinoe 5050 km ², of which 732 km ² are in Ukraine, the Delta itself being awarded to a area of 2540 km ². Danube arrived at Pătlăgeanca to fork into two branches, Chilia north and Tulcea branch in south arm who then Ceatal Saint George, splits in the Sulina branch and arm of St. George. Chilia, forms the border with Ukraine, and transported over its length of 104 km ², 60% of Danube waters and alluvium. Thanks to 67 million tons of silt to the Danube Delta increased annually by approx. 40 meters.

     Sulina branch is located in the middle Danube, and unlike Chile has a straight course, being constantly dredged to maintain navigation and maritime vessels. Has a length of 71 km and carries 18% of the Danube water. Course St. George arm is oriented to the southeast, and is carried out on 112 km, carrying 22% of Danube flow. River islands formed at the beginning of delta Sacalin considered secondary

     Delta is characterized by positive landforms called levees and negative landforms represented by depressions filled with water (lakes). Currently, Delta is in the form of a flat with a slope of 0.006 ‰, crossed by a web of water: river arms, channels and streams, dotted by lakes and backwaters. Differences in altitude above sea level, are 8-10 m in the levees and -2 to -4 m in the lake depressions.

     Danube Delta territory is divided into two geographical sub-regions namely: Delta itself occupying an area of 4250 km2, located between the river arms and Razim complex area, with an area of 990 km2. Of physico-geographical divide across the Danube river arms in two major natural subregions: the delta and delta river sea. Fluvial delta occupies over 65% of the total delta and extends from ceatalul Izmail, to downstream until Letea levees and Caraorman Periprava line (Chilia arm) - Crisan (branch by) - Ivancea (the arm of St. George) - Crasnicol - perishable. The subregion of the Danube Delta is divided into more natural units such as Sireasa Depression Depression Sontea-Storm Depression Pardina Depression-Merhei Matita, beams Chilia Grindul Stipoc in evolutionary Tataru in evolutionary Babina in evolutionary Cernovca Depression Litcov, Erenciuc Depression Depression-Buhaiova Rosca, Meadow Tulcea Dranov-Dunav Murighiol and depression, etc.. Delta Ocean less than 35% of the Danube Delta area, east of the line-Crisan-Ivancea Periprava-Crasnicol-perishable. In this subregion, as in if the river delta, there are areas with positive and negative relief, but unlike the first subregion, the bottom is below sea level depressions in most cases. (Soil of the Romanian Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, 1996).

 

Delta climate

 

     Delta climate is temperate climate within the area specifically arid steppe Pontic. Flat water and very large spaces, covered in varying degrees of vegetation, interrupted by islands of sandy marine fields, constituting a specific active delta area and adjacent lagoons, quite different from the Pontic steppe.

     This active area responds to the total radiation received and the general circulation of the atmosphere resulting in a mosaic of microclimates. Total radiation varies between a minimum of 3.5 kcal / cmp recorded in the winter months and a maximum of 17 Kcl. / CMP, in July. Depending on the intensity of activity centers to install the main barrel specific weather conditions: mild winter days (when activated center barrel northeastern Europe), cold winter days with strong winds (when acting anticiclonii North Atlantic), summer days warm and dry (when acţionază anticiclonii tropical Atlantic), rainy summer days (when the Mediterranean air interacts with the cold north-west Europe). sunshine duration is large, multi-annual average being 2250 hours, but can reach at 2600 hours in low nebulosity years. Distributed unevenly on the surface temperature delta. Multi-media show temperature increase from west to east. At the peak Delta (Tulcea) multi-annual average temperature of 10.94 C is the fluvial delta (Gorgova) of 10.96 C, on the seashore (Sulina), of 11.05 C and the Black Sea (Platform Gloria), of 11.86 C.

 

Flora

 

     Delta vegetation consists largely of a specific vegetation wetlands (reed, bulrush, sedge, mixed with small willow) and covers 78% of the total. Meadows occupy 6% of the delta, are forests of willow, ash, alder, poplar, which grow on river levees, are regularly flooded and the stitches are covered by water and floating aquatic vegetation, occupying 2% of the delta. There is also the forests and fields Letea and Caraorman brumãriu consist of oak, oak, ash, poplar, elm, climber. In terms of flora is typical for the Danube Delta and floating vegetation are diverse biotopes: reed swamps lakes, floating reed islet or fixed, deciduous forests, ground vegetation grind with salt, lush forest (Grindul Letea, tropical aspect).

 

Fauna

 

     Contains more than 320 bird species as 45 freshwater fish species in its numerous lakes and backwaters. This is where millions of birds from different corners of the Earth (Europe, Asia, Africa, Mediterranean) come to nest.

Ecositemul the aquatic food chain is phytoplankton, many species of brown algae, green and blue and zooplankton that feed on organisms that live in mud and bottom (invertebrates, molluscs like mussels and snails and oysters in the sea, a large variety of worms like leeches, cephalopods and crustaceans as Cancer, garizii, crabs).

     A very important sector is occupied by aquatic vegetation which is the reed, reed through clutter up floating roots (rhizomes). Plaur bearing element of other plants. Reed is a perennial covering 1,500 square kilometers in area and is operated economically Delta.

     Aquatic plants: white lily (Nymphaea alba), yellow lily, of exceptional importance for spawning fish. Stomatele is the shiny surface of leaves, insect pollination ensures the fruit is baked in deep, and floating seeds. Nuferilor seeds are liked by birds. Other floating plants: duckweed (Lemna), pestişoara (Salvinia), and carnivorous plants: urticularia and Aldrovandi.

Wetlands are covered with rush and sedge, yellow irises (Iris pseudacorus), peppermint pond, dock water, gray willow. White poplar growing on river levees, black poplars, several species of willow, mistletoe, seabuckthorn berries, mushrooms and near sea wormwood, salt grass, bindweed sand. Sand Letea is living monument: fluffy ash, wild vines, hops, bindweed, carnation sand obsiga, rush brumăriu oak, hawthorn, machetes, Horn, Periploca graeca, Mediterranean-looking.

     Of insects in the region very well reprezenta''sunt mosquitoes, bittern pond, several species of dragonflies, tăunii area as a curiosity Letea scorpions. Aq Home rich fish fauna of the delta is represented by over 110 species such as carp, catfish, rapacious carp, bream, pike, roach, rudd, carp, cod, sturgeon, starlet, sevruga, visa (Acipenseridae sturio, is a more rare seen in our water) in lakes meet mullets, Laban, pike (which lives in brackish waters), perch, crucian. The Danube Delta can meet right anchovyuatic insects are the fleas of marsh, water spiders and several species of butterflies

     Home rich fish fauna of the delta is represented by over 110 species such as carp, catfish, rapacious carp, bream, pike, roach, rudd, carp, cod, sturgeon, starlet, sevruga, visa (Acipenseridae sturio, is a more rare seen in our water) in lakes meet mullets, Laban, pike (which lives in brackish waters), perch, crucian. The Danube Delta can meet right anchovy sardelele, the favorite food of sharks, white carp, eel, eel, turbot, Bluefish, bloody. Some fish migrate to spawn for example shad (Alosa Pont) and blue mackerel, spring flocks entering rivers and springs to the Danube. Danube lives in a small species of shark, Squalus. Fish are an important source of food for birds and aquatic mammals. Some fish migrate from lakes in the Danube and vice versa for feeding and reproduction.

     Delta hosts a rich ornithological fauna consists of about 300 species, especially in large flocks coming from great distances: the frozen north and outside Europe. Delta is an important route and wintering. During the 80 were counted 4 million copies, grouped by seasons. Some species are sedentary birds: gulls, stilt, Heron, Grey Warbler, cufundacul, deer, cristeiul, whistler, jackdaw, eagle, Danube falcon, Tern, owl, kestrel, coot, găinuşa water prundaşii, Dove, white Caliphat Grebe, besides common species Romania: crow, woodpecker, ring dove, tits, sparrow, eagle.

     Most birds are part of migratory birds. Fri hoitarul Asian white egret mate, red duck, swan, cormorant. Fri region Siberian eagle owl than three species of ducks winter swan, Spotted Redshank and snipe passing the passage of Arctic streams, red-breasted goose, woodcock, black-headed duck. Come south delta pelican pelican and pink (curly), cranes, Sand Martin, White Stork, Red-crested Pochard. Changing environmental conditions to shift the numerical ratio of central to peripheral areas: Sacalin Island, beams Wolves, Histria.

     World mammals is well represented: otter, mink, raccoon, muskrat, water rat, weasel, wild cat, nutria, fox and wolf reed reed islet environment adapted well and is also found in areas with strong land boar, ferret, deer, badger, and where the river freezes in winter, moose in the woods Carorman. Danube and dolphins living in the northern coast seal white belly.

The Danube region is rich in turtles (five species), crested triton, four species of lizards, water snakes and turtles. In Letea are vipers.

 

Climate

 

     Steppe climate is a temperate climate moderated by the influence of the Black Sea and pools. Are below average annual rainfall of 450 mm, with little snow (9 days per year at Sulina). Delta characteristic phenomenon is the wind (over 300 days per year), and autumn fog. Due to changes in heating and cooling different areas of sand and water is born a daytime breeze with local effect. Relative humidity is high. Danube sometimes freezes in winter, and always ponds and lakes froze in winter, which adversely affects the food chain. A great influence on ecosystems has seasonal variation that raises and lowers water level in lakes and ponds stimulating migration and reproduction of aquatic animals and nesting birds. Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve is included in the UNESCO protected monument.

 

 . . . welcome you to Danube Delta !

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